The Mazda L-series is a mid-sized inline 4-cylinder gasoline piston engine designed by Mazda as part of their MZR family, ranging in displacement from 1.8L to 2.5L. Introduced in 2001, it is the evolution of the cast-iron block F-engine. The L-series is used by Ford as their 1.8L to 2.5L Duratec world engine.
The L-engine uses a chain-driven DOHC, 16-valve valvetrain with an all-aluminum block construction and cast-iron cylinder liners. Other features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft.
Other features are intake cam-phasing VVT, VTCS, VICS, a stainless steel 4:1 exhaust manifold and a lower main bearing cage for increased block rigidity. Direct-injection is available on the 2.0 L LF-VD and the award-winning (DISI) turbocharged L3-VDT engine introduced in 2006 for the Mazdaspeed lineup of vehicles.
In 2010, Ford introduced a GDI turbo variant of the Mazda LF engine design as the EcoBoost 2.0L, using Ford's own manifold and engine control systems. Ford plans to use the L-engine well into the future for their EcoBoost and Duratec 4-cylinder generations. In 2011, Mazda ceased to develop the L-engine and replaced it with the SkyActiv-G engine - an extensively revised evolution of the Mazda L-engine. At this time, Ford will be the only manufacturer still using the Mazda L-engine design.
The 1.8 L (1,798 cc (109.7 cu in)) version has a nearly-square 83 mm (3.27 in) bore and a 83.1 mm (3.3 in) stroke. Output is 125 hp (93 kW) at 6000 rpm with 122 lb⋅ft (165 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm.
In 2001, Ford introduced its first European Ford engine to use gasoline direct injection technology, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI). The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1-litre, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show. The 1.8 L was the first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge Injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well.
The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne facility and assembled in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially designed six-speed manual transmission.
European 1.8 L and 2.0 L Duratec HE engines are built at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain. Duratec FFV is a flex fuel version of the 1.8 L Duratec-HE modified to run on E85 fuel. 1.8L Focus C-Max and Focus Mk II versions use a drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.
Ford's versions are rated at 92 kW (123 hp; 125 PS) at 6000 rpm and 165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio.
The 2.0 L (1,999 cc (122.0 cu in)) version has 10.0:1 compression ratio, an 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore and it shares the 83.1 mm (3.27 in) stroke of the 1.8 L. Changes to the engine include switching from a cast aluminum to a reinforced plastic intake manifold and from Sequential multi-port fuel injection to gasoline direct injection.
Ford's version is rated at 107 kW (143 hp; 145 PS) of power at 6000 rpm and 185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio. This engine is also used by Volvo, called B4204S3 (or B4204S4 as Flexifuel engine capable of running on E85).
On the 2007 Focus, output is 136 hp (101 kW; 138 PS) at 6000 rpm with 136 lb⋅ft (184 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2007 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS) at 6000 rpm with 129 lb⋅ft (175 N⋅m) of torque at 4000 rpm. California legal emissions PZEV cars utilized advanced air injection into the oem tubular manifold to not only lower emissions, but raise engine efficiency. On the 2008 Focus, output is 140 hp (104 kW; 142 PS) at 6000 ;rpm with 136 lb⋅ft (184 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2009 Focus had 143 hp (107 kW; 145 PS) when equipped with manual transmission due to a higher flowing exhaust system pulled from the 2006/2007 models. The 2008 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 132 hp (98 kW; 134 PS) at 6000 rpm and 133 lb⋅ft (180 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm.
Mazda's LF-VD version was equipped with Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) and a higher compression ratio for improved efficiency in the JDM and EDM markets. It produces 148 hp (110 kW; 150 PS) at 6500 rpm and 187 N⋅m (138 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm.
In 2011 Ford started selling the third generation Ford Focus in North America which comes with an updated version that utilizes direct injection and Ti-VCT. These features, along with an increased compression ratio of 12.1:1 allow the engine to generate 160 hp (119 kW; 162 PS) at 6000 rpm and 146 lb⋅ft (198 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. This version is referred to as the "Duratec 20."
The Ford Duratec 20 engines are built in Dearborn, Michigan, United States, and Chihuahua, Mexico, with some being built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan.
The plastic intake manifold on early versions of the 1.8 and 2.0 has a major fault due to poor-quality materials. The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head. Early four-cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder. Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90,000 miles.
A turbocharged Ford EcoBoost version was introduced in 2010.
The 2.3 L; 138.0 cu in (2,261 cc) version uses the same 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore as the 2.0 L but with a long 94 mm (3.70 in) stroke. It produces around 122 kW (164 hp; 166 PS) at 6000 rpm and 195 N⋅m (144 lb⋅ft) between 4000 and 4500 rpm.
The 23EW was built in Chihuahua, Mexico for transverse installation in several front-drive Ford/Mercury/Mazda vehicles through the 2009 model year. "EW" in the Ford designation code denotes East-West configuration, or transverse mounting. Three versions of the 23EW have been produced. A standard DOHC 16V version was used in the North American Focus producing 113 kW (151 hp; 153 PS) at 5750 rpm with 154 lb⋅ft (209 N⋅m) of torque at 4250 rpm. An iVCT (intake variable cam timing)-equipped DOHC 16V version was used in the 2006–2009 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan, and several generations of CD2-based crossovers.
The 23NS was built in Dearborn, Michigan, for the Ford Ranger and North American market Mazda B-Series from the 2001 model year to the 2011 model year. "NS" denotes North-South configuration, or longitudinal mounting. These engines are tuned for torque-bias making them suitable for light-truck use and are not equipped with iVCT or VICS. There are two versions of the 23NS with slight differences:
The Duratec 23E is a version of the Duratec 23 which meets California PZEV emissions standards.
In some Eastern and Middle Eastern models, the Mazda6 had a tuned version of this 2.3-liter engine producing 178 hp (133 kW; 180 PS) at 6500 rpm and 159 lb⋅ft (215 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm.
A high-efficiency Atkinson cycle version was used in the Ford Escape, Mercury Mariner, and Mazda Tribute Hybrids.
A Cosworth tuned version of this engine is found in the BAC Mono producing 209 kW (280 hp; 284 PS) and 207 lb⋅ft (280 N⋅m) of torque, making it the most powerful version of this engine.
Introduced in 2005 with the Mazdaspeed6, the L3-VDT is an award-winning turbocharged version of the 2.3 with direct injection spark ignition, or "DISI" is also pronounced. It develops 263 hp (196 kW; 267 PS) at 5,500 rpm and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) at 3,000 rpm and is capable of propelling the Mazdaspeed3 from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 5.6 seconds.
The L3-VDT features a bore of 87.5 mm and a stroke of 94.0 mm, identical to the naturally aspirated L3-VE. The 16V setup is controlled by a chain driven DOHC.
L3s produced prior to 2010 are notorious for losing tension in the chain. The loose timing chain causes the timing of the engine and the VVT in particular to be improperly timed, often resulting in cylinders colliding with the valves.
In 2010 the L3-VDT was revised to fix some of the common failures, the shape of the cylinder head was reworked, possibly to concentrate fuel near the sparkplug, the ECU was made faster and featured more air/fuel cells to reduce the chance of the engine leaning out. Another change was a fix for the timing chain tension issues. The turbo seals were also updated.
While the 2.0 Ford EcoBoost engine and its later 2.3 variant share a cylinder block with the L3-VDT and are derived from the Mazda L architecture, little else is shared between the EcoBoost and L3-VDT and they should not be confused with one another. The EcoBoost engines have different turbochargers, Ford-designed heads, different direct injection systems along with featuring Ford's Ti-VCT variable valve timing system instead of Mazda's S-VT.
Introduced in non-North American markets for the MY2008 and North American markets for MY2009, the 2.5L L5-VE is an updated, bored and stroked version of the L3-VE 2.3L. The 2.5 L; 151.8 cu in (2,488 cc) L5 4-cylinder engine has an 89 mm (3.50 in) bore and a 100 mm (3.94 in) stroke, with a compression ratio of 9.7:1. The standard crankshaft is cast iron with eight counterweights. To increase durability of the bore, Mazda uses cast iron for the cylinder liners. This offers enhanced high-heat tolerance as well as reduced friction. The increased stroke of 100 mm (3.94 in), up from 94 mm (3.70 in) of the L3, allows a taller (numerically lower) final-drive ratio resulting in lower-rpm while cruising to increase fuel economy. It also uses iVCT. It produces 170 bhp (127 kW; 172 PS) at its 6000 rpm redline (168 hp (125 kW; 170 PS) in PZEV trim) and 167 lb⋅ft (226 N⋅m) of torque at 4000 rpm (166 lb⋅ft (225 N⋅m) in PZEV trim). Certain versions are rated at 175 hp (130 kW; 177 PS) at 6000 rpm with 172 lb⋅ft (233 N⋅m) of torque at 4500 rpm.
Ford has developed an Atkinson cycle variant of the Mazda L5 engine for use in the Ford Fusion Hybrid and Ford Maverick Hybrid vehicles. They also used this variant under the Duratec engine family name in the 2010-2019 Ford Fusion. This engine was named one of Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2010. Fuel saving features include adaptive knock control and aggressive deceleration fuel cutoff. This and the 2.3 L competed with Toyota's 2.4 L 2AZ-FE engine, sharing similar technology.
In late 2006, Mazda announced an agreement with Advanced Engine Research (AER) to develop the MZR-R motor for sports car racing. The engine is a 2.0 L turbocharged I4 based on the production MZR block. The engine will initially be used by the Mazda factory team in the American Le Mans Series as a replacement for their R20B rotary, then later sold to customer teams.
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